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Write a research paper on Concentrations of PAEs in human breast milk from China.

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are mainly used as plasticizers to increase the flexibilities and durability of plastic products, such as children’s toys and food packages. In addition, they also had a broad range of industrial and household applications. The total production of PAEs exceed 8 million tons/year around the world, and about 2.2 million tons of PAEs were manufactured in China each year. Since PAEs are not chemically bound to the polymeric matrix, PAEs can easily be released into the environment during their manufacturing and application processes. Widespread applications of PAE-containing products have led to their ubiquitous detections in surface water, sediment, indoor dust, biota, and human urine. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are always the predominant PAE congeners determined in environment matrixes and humans.Breast milk is the predominant or exclusive food source of nourishment for newborns at the first 6 months. PAE levels in breast milk can reflect their lactation exposure for breastfed infants. A better understanding of the occurrence of PAEs in breast milk is essential to evaluate the daily intake of PAEs for infants.