Write a 700-word response to one bullet at the end of chapter 4 .bullet is White- Collar crime.Income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer fraud, bribery and extraction of “kickbacks,” embezzlement, and misrepresentation in advertising—these are all examples of white-collar crime, illegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often by affluent, “respectable” people. Edwin Sutherland (1949, 1983) likened these crimes to organized crime because they are often perpetrated through people’s occupational roles.A new type of white-collar crime has emerged in recent decades: cybercrime. Cybercrime is illegal activity primarily conducted through the use of computer hardware or software. Encompassed within cybercrime is cyberespionage and cyberterrorism. Cybercrime is a global problem, but the United States is victim to 80 percent of the data breaches. Because of the high value of U.S. targets, it is estimated that this country accounts for over 90 percent of the global cost of these breaches. By 2019 the annual cost of criminal data breaches in the United States is estimated to reach 2 trillion dollars (Juniper Research 2015).When Charles Horton Cooley spoke of the self and Erving Goffman of impression management, surely neither scholar could have envisioned the insidious crime of identity theft. Each year about 7 percent of all adults find that their personal information has been misused for criminal purposes. Unfortunately, with our society’s growing reliance on electronic financial transactions, assuming someone else’s identity has become increasingly easy (Harrel 2015).Identity theft does not necessarily require technology. A criminal can obtain someone’s personal information by pickpocketing or by intercepting mail. However, the widespread exchange of information online has allowed criminals to access large amounts of personal information. Public awareness of the potential harm from identity theft took a giant leap in the aftermath of September 11, 2001, when investigations revealed that several hijackers had used fraudulent IDs to open bank accounts, rent apartments, and board planes. A law enacted in 2004 makes identity theft punishable by a mandatory prison sentence if it is linked to other crimes. Still, unauthorized disclosures of information, even if accidental, persist.Sutherland (1940) coined the term white-collar crime in 1939 to refer to acts by individuals, but the term has been broadened recently to include offenses by businesses and corporations. Corporate crime, or any act by a corporation that is punishable by the government, takes many forms and includes individuals, organizations, and institutions among its victims. Corporations may engage in anticompetitive behavior, environmental pollution, tax fraud, accounting fraud, stock fraud and manipulation, the production of unsafe goods, bribery and corruption, and worker health and safety violations (J. Coleman 2006).