1. Label the sections of Chapter 4 A through L, with A being the very first paragraph on p. 87. Take notes with these questions as a guide, but also jotting down anything that interests YOU and any connections you see with other course material.
A: What contributed to a growing number of people who could read in Ming?
B & C: Did the examination system mean that all Confucians thought alike? What were some ways Confucian thinking changed (can you put the changes on your timeline?) and varied? Do you see any old friends here? A major thinker to remember is Wang Yangming (use the index or your notes to see what else he did).
D: Did Buddhists all think alike? What were some ways Buddhism changed (timeline?) and varied?
E pp. 96-99: What were some ways that literati took personal and local action to improve the world, as well as working as officials?
F: How did the Donglin and Fushe associations (sometimes called “parties”) work both inside and outside of government? Where do the fall on your timeline?
G-J: What kinds of literary styles developed over the course of Ming? Any old friends here? Timeline?
K: Here, along with Yuan Hongdao, whom we’ll be reading in Week Eight, Dardess introduces the cultural ferment of late Ming. What did qing mean in late Ming times? did everyone agree that qing and social changes were good or bad?
L: Dardess returns to the main theme of his book. What does he conclude?
2. After you’ve taken your notes, review them, set them aside, and write 1-3 paragraphs about what you learned from this chapter, including questions it will lead you to ask about other Ming people.