The methodology is an academic public health report. The aim of the report is to determine the impact of ICS on improving population health and reducing health inequalities. To achieve this aim, the following actions will be taken:Based on a critical review of the literature: Identify the reasons why Englands health system is no longer fit for purpose to drive improvements in population health and reduce inequalities, taking account of current and future impacts. Outline the policy context, drivers for change, epidemiological impact and interventions. Describe ICS, its aims, intended benefits, opportunities, challenges, including evidence base for improving population health and reducing inequalities. Propose and discuss public health surveillance and further research to meet gaps in the evidence base that could met to inform the subject area.