Anthropology Health & Healing/Cross Culture Pers
Although this comes originally from Princeton, the same academic integrity standards apply at Montclair State. Remember that anything that appears in your references also has to be cited in your paper. If you are unsure about whether to cite – cite anyway – over-citing is much better and safer than under-citing. If you have questions about any citation – email or message me.
When to Cite (from Princeton http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/cite/ (Links to an external site.))
When to Cite Sources
Youll discover that different academic disciplines have different rules and protocols concerning when and how to cite sources, a practice known as citation. For example, some disciplines use footnotes, whereas others use parenthetical in-text citations; some require complete bibliographic information on all works consulted, whereas others require only a list of Works Cited. As you decide on a concentration and begin advanced work in your department, youll need to learn the particular protocols for your discipline. Near the end of this booklet, youll find a brief sampling of commonly used citation styles.
The five basic principles described below apply to all disciplines and should guide your own citation practice. Even more fundamental, however, is this general rule: when in doubt, cite. Youll certainly never find yourself in trouble if you acknowledge a source when its not absolutely necessary; its always preferable to err on the side of caution and completeness. Better still, if youre unsure about whether or not to cite a source, ask your professor or preceptor for guidance before submitting the paper or report.
1. Quotation. Any verbatim use of a source, no matter how large or small the quotation, must be placed in quotation marks or, if longer than three lines, clearly indented beyond the regular margin. The quotation must be accompanied, either within the text or in a footnote, by a precise indication of the source, identifying the author, title, place and date of publication (where relevant), and page numbers. Even if you use only a short phrase, or even one key word, you must use quotation marks in order to set off the borrowed language from your own, and you must cite the source.
2. Paraphrase. Paraphrase is a restatement of another persons thoughts or ideas in your own words, using your own sentence structure. A paraphrase is normally about the same length as the original. Although you dont need to use quotation marks when you paraphrase, you absolutely do need to cite the source, either in parentheses or in a footnote. If another authors idea is particularly well put, quote it verbatim and use quotation marks to distinguish his or her words from your own. Paraphrase your source if you can restate the idea more clearly or simply, or if you want to place the idea in the flow of your own thoughtsthough be sure to announce your source in your own text (Albert Einstein believed that) and always include a citation. Paraphrasing does not relieve you of the responsibility to cite your source.
3. Summary. Summary is a concise statement of another persons thoughts or ideas in your own words. A summary is normally shorter than the original a distillation of the sources ideas. When summarizing other peoples ideas, arguments, or conclusions, you must cite your sources for example, with a footnote at the end of each summary. Taking good notes while doing your research will help you keep straight which ideas belong to which author. Good note-taking habits are especially important when youre reviewing a series of interpretations or ideas on your subject.
4. Facts, Information, and Data. Often youll want to use facts or information to support your own argument. If the information is found exclusively in a particular source, you must clearly acknowledge that source. For example, if you use data from a scientific experiment conducted and reported by a researcher, you must cite your source, probably a scientific journal or a website. Or if you use a piece of information discovered by another scholar in the course of his or her own research, you must cite your source. But if the fact or information is generally well known and acceptedfor example, that Woodrow Wilson served as president of both Princeton University and the United States, or that Avogadros number is 6.02 x 1023you do not need to cite a source. Note that facts are different from ideas: facts may not need to be cited, whereas ideas must always be cited. Deciding which facts or pieces of information require citation and which are common knowledge, and thus do not require citation, isnt always easy. For example, finding the same fact or piece of information in multiple sources doesnt necessarily mean that it counts as common knowledge. Your best course of action in such a case may be to cite the most credible or authoritative of the multiple sources. Refer to a later section in this booklet, Not-So-Common Knowledge (Links to an external site.), for more discussion of how to determine what counts as common knowledge. But remember: when in doubt, cite.
5. Supplementary Information. Occasionally, especially in a longer research paper, you may not be able to include all of the information or ideas from your research in the body of your own paper. In such cases, insert a note offering supplementary information rather than simply providing basic bibliographic information (author, title, place and date of publication, and page numbers). In such footnotes or endnotes, you might provide additional data to bolster your argument, or briefly present an alternative idea that you found in one of your sources, or even list two or three additional articles on some topic that your reader might find of interest. Such notes demonstrate the breadth and depth of your research, and permit you to include germane, but not essential, information or concepts without interrupting the flow of your own paper.
Additional claims or analysis of your own that you want to include in your essay without distracting readers from the central line of argument may also appear in footnote form. In these cases, the footnote will not include a citation because the ideas or findings presented belong to you.
In all of the cases above, the standards of academic integrity require both citing the source in the text of your essay and its incorporation into your bibliography. To be clear, it is not enough to simply list a source in your bibliography if it deserves explicit citation in the essays body. Failure to provide that citation may result in being charged with plagiarism.
Sometimes, though rarely, a source merits inclusion in your bibliography even when it doesn’t merit a particular citation in your papers text. This most often occurs when a source plays a critical role in your understanding of your topic, but never lends a specific idea or piece of evidence to your essays argument. For example, imagine youre writing a paper about totalitarian regimes, and your thinking about such regimes is heavily influenced by your reading of George Orwells 1984. Imagine further that nothing from the novel appears explicitly in your essay, and your strongest reference to the book is describing these regimes as Orwellian in passing. Here there would be no need to cite 1984 directly, but it would be appropriate to list it in your bibliography. As always, if youre unsure about a particular case, err on the side of providing a citation and a bibliography entry.
For international students, its especially important to review and understand the citation standards and expectations for institutions of higher learning in the United States. Students who have done their college preparation at schools in other countries may have learned research and paper-writing practices different from those at Princeton. For example, students from schools in East Asia may learn that copying directly from sources, without citation, is the proper way to write papers and do research. Students in France, preparing for the Baccalaureate examination, may be encouraged to memorize whole passages from secondary sources and copy them into papers and exam essays. Those cultural differences can sometimes lead to false assumptions about citation practices and expectations at Princeton. Make sure you understand the Universitys academic regulations and ask for assistance from your professors or preceptors if youre not sure.
Citation Styles – use whatever is common in your major – see examples at this site
You will be expected to write an original paper based on a non-western healing system (you can use any system but not biomedicine). NOTE THAT ALL ITEMS ON YOUR REFERENCE LIST MUST BE CITED IN THE TEXT OF YOUR PAPER and your references are in addition to the 4-5 pages (it can’t count as page 4).
Your paper should include the following sections:
A. Description (15 pts)
Describe the non-western healing system. What is the system based on and where does it originate? If the origin is not known at least list where it is thought to originate. What type of diseases does it treat and/or heal?
B. Practitioners (15 pts)
Who are the practitioners and how do they achieve their position (for example formal training, born into it, a specific experience, etc.)?
C. Worldview and Integration with Biomedicine (15 pts)
Based on your study of this non-western healing system what are the two most important cultural concepts of the world-view of patients of this system that would need to be understood by biomedical doctors if they are also treating the same patients in US hospitals. For example some cultures do not recognize the same symptoms as treatable health problems and dont seek biomedical care for them.
D. Your Community (15 pts)
Where is the closest practitioner of this type of healing to where you live? You can search for your system and your town or just the system and NJ and you should find sources. We have some version of almost every health system here. Based on your answer to Discussion Question 1b (about health problems in your community) would this healer be able to help address the problems you wrote about in 1b explain why or why not.
The other sources should be first hand materials from books, journals, or other academic sources. Do not use Wikipidea, About.com, or other second or third hand sources. If you are unsure about sources, feel free to email me. You can use any style for citations. Your paper should include a work cited or reference page (read Final Paper – READ THIS BEFORE WRITING for information about citing). The paper can be posted into Canvas and/or emailed.